ISSN: 1999-8716

Volume 6, Issue 3

Volume 6, Issue 3, Summer 2013, Page 1-157


Ahlam H. Shnain

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, 2013, Volume 6, Issue 3, Pages 1-16

This paper presents a new algorithm to scramble color image using voiceprint and linear predicative coding (LPC).
The speech signal pass through pre-processing stage which includes sampling and segmentation into many frames. All frames are windowed using rectangular window and fed to linear predicative predicator, the linear predicator is used to obtain the coefficient of the pth order all-pole vocal tract and it predicts the current sample of the speech signal from linear combination of past samples. Levison Durbin (L-D) procedure is used for each speech frame to find Lp coefficients, reflection coefficients and predictor error.
For scrambling color image, key will be generated manually; by using the LPC coefficient, by ascending all the LPC coefficients and compare each coefficient with all pixels of the color image. When LPC coefficient is similar to the pixel, the pixel will be replaced by that coefficient. So that pixel will be send in random sequence and the color image will be scrambled by using voice print (LPC) coefficients. Descrambling will be done in reverse procedure.
Scrambling process is simulated using MATLAB version 7.06.324(R2008a). Many tests are done with different speech signals and color image, SNR, correlation will founded good results.


Hafeth I. Naji

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, 2013, Volume 6, Issue 3, Pages 1-21

The maintenance of hospital building’s projects and management practices Is one of comprehensive subjects which must be efforts to give attention and considerations required, which requires a permanent search for better methods that help in evaluation the management of maintenance of these project. The style of preferential rules of similarity with the ideal solution is one of those methods. This research focuses on the provision of Technique for Order Performance by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) as technique helps to make the best decisions when setting up the project, which encountered problems are complex and multi-criteria (MCDM). And apply this technique on a variety of areas as it allows the comprehensive study and non-biased criteria and alternatives. This research aims to highlight the importance of maintenance, and how it can be employed technical grounds (TOPSIS) to evaluate the management of maintenance hospitals projects that following to Diyala city, through the identification of the criteria used to select the best project in terms of maintenance management, as well as determining the list of hospitals projects in order to choose the project optimization of this area And then access to the ideal Maintenance Management for hospitals in the province. For the purpose of achieve the objective of research, has been collecting its own data from the literature that dealt with substantive rules of Technique for Order Performance by Similarity to Ideal Solution and maintenance management, and finally personal interviews of qualified designers , implementers and operators of these hospitals. Showed the results of data analysis for the sample that the criteria for planning, implementation, organization, control is the most important criteria for bilateral comparisons between hospitals, and that the criteria planning and execution is more important than the rest of the criteria in hospitals. Finally, and by calculating the relative closeness index and classification of the order, we find that hospitals Baquba General Hospital has received the largest share of importance in comparison with other hospitals and by the administration needs to pay greater attention to maintenance to bring it to the ideal situation such as encoding operations to include the buildings and maintenance work together.
In the end, was a set of conclusions and recommendations of the various aspects of the topic from, accelerate the application of techniques of multi-criteria decision-making in the evaluation of projects in addition to expediting the application of the systems proposed by researchers for the Maintenance management to help the engineers on the best implementation of this administration.


Akeel Ali Wannas

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, 2013, Volume 6, Issue 3, Pages 17-27

Hard turning technology has been gaining acceptance in many industries throughout the last 2decades. The trend today is to replace the slow and cost-intensive grinding process with finish hard turning in many industrial applications such as bearings, transmission shafts, axles and engine components, flap gears, landing struts and aerospace engine components. In this study, Radial Basis Function Neural Network (RBFNN) model has been developed for the prediction of the status of the tool wear. Learning data was collected from Experimental setup. The neural network model has 3 input nodes and one output representing process Modeling correlates process state variables to parameters. The process input parameters are Feed rate (F), cutting Speed (S) and Depth of cut (Dc). The process output is state Variable (Vb). Regression analysis between finite element results and values predicted by the neural network model shows the least error.

Covering Building Faced Effection & Energy Conservation (Experimental Study)

Atif Ali Hasan

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, 2013, Volume 6, Issue 3, Pages 22-36

The objective of this work is reduction the electrical energy consumption for cooling building by environmental effect reduction in summer seasons, by re-covering building faced principle, therefore was selected low weight, low cost and easy assembly materials (Hollow plastic decoration or Formica layer with fiber wood) which used with or without insulating materials.The study occurs at Baghdad city (latitude 33.2°N).
The researcher found that, the using plastic finishing decorative with insulating materials saved 35% from annual electrical energy, but that saved become 41% when using fiber wood with Formica layer, but become 52% when used insulated reflective surfaces.


Raaed Faleh Hassan; Ali Subhi Abbood

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, 2013, Volume 6, Issue 3, Pages 28-39

Genetic Algorithms (GAs) are used to solve many optimization problems in science and engineering such as pattern recognition, robotics, biology, medicine, and many other applications. The aim of this paper is to describe a method of designing Finite Impulse Response (FIR) filter using Genetic Algorithm (GA). In this paper, the Genetic Algorithm not only used for searching the optimal coefficients, but also it is used to find the minimum number of Taps, and hence minimize the number of multipliers and adders that can be used in the design of the FIR filter. The Evolutionary Programming is the best search procedure and most powerful than Linear Programming in providing the optimal solution that is desired to minimize the ripple content in both passband and stopband. The algorithm generates a population of genomes that represents the filter coefficient and the number of taps, where new genomes are generated by crossover and mutation operations methods. Our proposed genetic technique has able to give better result compare to other method.
The FIR filter design using Genetic Algorithm is simulated using MATLAB programming language version (R2008a).


Ameel M. Al-Mayah

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, 2013, Volume 6, Issue 3, Pages 40-63

In the present study, a general mathematical model for a fixed bed–immobilized enzymereactor was developedto simulate the process of diffusion and reaction inside the biocatalyst particle. The modeling and simulation of starch hydrolysis using immobilized α–amylase was used as a model for this study. Corn starch hydrolysis was carried out at constant pH of 5.5 and temperature of 50°C. The substrate flowrate was ranging from 0.2 – 5.0 ml/min, substrate initial concentrations 1 to 100 g/L. α–amylase was immobilized on to calcium alginate hydro-gel beads of 2mm average diameter.In this work Michaelis–Menten kinetics has been considered. The effect of substrate flow rate (i.e. residence time) and initial concentration on intra-particle diffusion has been taking into consideration. The performance of the system is found to be affected by the substrate flow rate and initial concentrations. The reaction is controlled by the reaction rate. The model equation was a non-linear second order differential equation simulated based on the experimental data for steady state condition. The simulation was achieved numerically using FINITE ELEMENTS in MATLABSoftware package. The simulated results give satisfactory results for substrate and product concentration profile within the biocatalyst bead.


Emad K. Hussein

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, 2013, Volume 6, Issue 3, Pages 64-82

A theoretical and experimental study of measurement of three dimensional Cartesian coordinates of the end effecter of a robotic manipulator with three different frames each one known relative to the other was carried out in this research.
The aim of this work is, first, to calculate three dimensional Cartesian coordinates of an end effecter tip which lies in a specific frame {C} with respect to another frame which represents the fixed base frame {A} passing through an intermediate frame {B} by using Matrix Compound Transformation Method i.e. theoretical approach, then followed by measuring the same coordinates by another two traditional procedures, they are:
o Self Coordinates Feeding.
o Manual Alignment.
And comparing the final obtained results (theoretical and experimental) with the standard one. The second step is checking repeatability for the above mentioned methods, by measuring the final tip coordinates for 18 times for each case.
The final result shows that the Matrix Compound Transformation Method gives an accurate repeatability comparing with the others.


Huda Mohammed Abdul-Aziz; Nasser Malik Abbas; Amjad Hussain Jasim

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, 2013, Volume 6, Issue 3, Pages 83-96

This work aims to study the effect of heat treatment on the corrosion resistance of friction stir welded joint of AA 6061 T6.
Friction stir welding process carried out using CNC milling machine with a tool of rotational speed (1000 rpm) and welding speed of (20mm/min) to obtain butt joint welding of sheets which prepared from AA 6061 T6 in the dimensions of (100 mm x 70mm x 6mm ).
After obtaining the welded joints many corrosion specimens were prepared in dimensions of (15*15*2) mm according to ASTM G 71-31 , specimens subjected to solution heat treatment at 500ºC for half an hour then water quenched, this process followed by artificial ageing at 190ºC for 2, 4, and 6hrs.
All specimens subjected to hardness test and microstructure examination to show the effect of the heat treatment on the mechanical properties and microstructure.
Corrosion behavior of the specimens were studied before and after heat treatment by using potentiostatic method in sea water at 3.5%NaCl and temperature of 30ºC, then corrosion rate was calculated by using Tafel equation.
The obtained results show that artificial aging treatment contributed in increasing the corrosion resistance of weld because of presence of precipitate phases occurring in the microstructures of the welding zone but corrosion resistance decreased as increasing aging time because of the increasing of the precipitating elements. It was found that artificial aging for 2 hours gives the best corrosion resistance.


Mohammed Sami Mohammed

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, 2013, Volume 6, Issue 3, Pages 97-106

Two techniques combined with each other, to get complex one. One from technique of genetic algorithm (GA) and the other is PlayFair cipher method, in this research using one step of Genetic Algorithm (GA) which called Crossover to make offspring of two parents (characters) to get one or two new character by using these techniques then using PlayFair technique to cipher text (plain text). So the person who wants to break code, two techniques must know.
This research is a novel method of ciphering by getting a new generation of offspring from two characters, when we give a new theory of symbols as mention in research.


Amer M. Ibrahim; Qussay W. Ahmed

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, 2013, Volume 6, Issue 3, Pages 107-126

This paper presents a nonlinear finite element computer program. ANSYS version 12.0 developed for the analysis of composite steel-concrete beam. A three-dimensional finite element (FE) model has been developed in this work. The analytical results of load-deflection response have been compared with available experimental tests. In general good agreement between the finite element solutions and experimental results have been obtained. Parametric studies have been carried out to investigate the effect of some important material and geometrical parameters. These parameters included the effect of shear connectors number, concrete grade, thickness to width ratio of concrete slab, the ultimate load for shear connector and effect of yield strength of Steel beam. It was found that, as the compressive strength of concrete increases from 20 MPa to 70 MPa the ultimate load increases by about 20% and also an increase in the thickness to width ratio (t/B) of concrete slab from 0.1 to 0.3 lead to increase in the ultimate load by about 43%.


Talib EH. Elaikh; Haider J. Abed; Kadhim M. Abed; Salah M. Swadi; Kadhim Karim M

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, 2013, Volume 6, Issue 3, Pages 127-143

This paper presents a procedure for assessing the vibration analysis of type SCARA robots. The motion and running conditions of such robots are very complicated that leads to produce vibration and shock which are generated by arm profile in running conditions .In this study the vibration analysis gives the feasibility of the preview control was examined to improve the performance of the SCARA robots system. As it is important for containment the robot arm trajectories generated by the model to show satisfactory safe performance under vibration occurrence phenomena so that they completely avoid errors, the results obtained from such vibration analysis assessment procedure are considered to be valuable and reliable process not only with respect to vibration risk assessment but also for predicting kinematic analysis by investigating the robot arm motion using the kinematic and vibration methods. Forced vibrations is studied analytically help the designer to predict the behavior and design the robot hardware or control system. Theoretical results show reduction in both vibration amplitude and time history response.


Khattab Saleem AbdulRazzaq; Waad A. Zakaria

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, 2013, Volume 6, Issue 3, Pages 144-157

Domes are back again in Iraq. They are early recognized with specific houses of those who consider them a symbol of Iraqi architecture, beauty and luxury at the same time.
Nowadays, domes are widely implemented. Domes, built with brick, reinforced concrete or steel; separated or overlapped are widely implemented (5).
In order to achieve fast and accurate dome designs, we must to be familiar with how domes behave under various types of loads and boundary conditions.
This humble work illustrates the deduced results of membrane theory and finite element to address specific cases in which fast and easy membrane theory results cannot be adopted directly by recommending other ways in order to get an accurate implementation of membrane theory in harmony with engineering sense.
Several types of loading applied on a spherical dome –as an example– in this research to get results which were analyzed, discussed and then recommendations were presented in this paper.