ISSN: 1999-8716

Volume 5, Issue 1

Volume 5, Issue 1, Spring 2012, Page 1-230


Saad Qassim Fleh; Ali N. Hameid; Anwar Noor Alden

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, 2012, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 1-12

ABSTRACT:- This paper introduces a proposed method for hybrid 2D wavelet transform,
and applies this method on the field of lossless image compression method. Wavelets in 2D or
higher dimensions are often generated by a decomposition scheme from 1D wavelets. There are
two decomposition schemes; the standard (rectangular) and the nonstandard (square)
decomposition. A hybrid 2D wavelet transform is a result of mixing these two decompositions in
order to improve the compression performance and compression ratio.
KEYWORD: Hybrid 2D wavelet transform, Discreet wavelet transform, Lossless compression.


Dr. Khattab S. AbdulRazzaq

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, 2012, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 1-8

ABSTRACT:- The research shows the evaluation of the actual study of multi-story building in the University of Diyala by testing the ultrasonic pulse velocity and Schmidt hammer . The study has been conducted by investigating the results of two methods included
( 14 columns and 14 points by using three reading of pulse velocity and ten reading of Schmidt hammer test , for the building ).The results can be used for the evaluation of the pulse velocity readings between ( 3.4 – 5.0 km/sec ) and the Schmidt hammer test readings
between ( 20 – 33). The comparison for the evaluation of building was made by three equations,(Based on Dr .Alsamerie,etc equation (1), Dr. Reof ,etc equation (2),and Dr. Isam ,etc equation (3) .The evaluation of results indicated that Eq. (1) gives higher compressive strength by (20.7 %) , and the Eq. (2) gives also higher compressive strength by (14.6%) when compared with Eq. (3). Therefore, the evaluation cant not used one equation ,but using more equations and take the average . we may get acceptable results for concrete strength .
Keyword: pulse velocity, Schmidt hammer, evaluation, building, non destructive test, compressive strength .

Determining the Architectural Identity Features from environmental Point of View

Omer H.Karufa

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, 2012, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 9-32

ABSTRACT:- Architecture as the other cognitive fields was not separated from the people's life, directions and aspirations on their different levels and cultures, it occupies a fantastic position because of its direct relationship with the society's life, so it grew and flourished in different areas of the world, and it has developed according to certain bases and conceptions which were approved by different and sequenced eras.
As the architecture is considered a cultural production has its direct relationship with the environment, it can be dealt with as a true expression of the cultural interaction among nations, this interaction which enriched the humanity with different creative productions.
The current research has focused on the problem of "Unclear mechanisms of determining the architectural identity features according to the environment's considerations", and it has determined a clear aim connects with the problem and it dealt: "Making mechanisms of determining the Islamic architectural identity features according to the environment's considerations", the researcher has headed for achieving this aim, through knowing the concept of identity and its correlated vocabularies which affect in the architectural identity
reaching to determining the identity relationship with the environment for being a factor which influences this field, as well as, the current research has dealt with the Islamic architecture experiment and how it was distinguished in this field, through showing and
analyzing selected samples according to a certain method. The importance of this subject has been appeared through the final conclusions which are related with the research's aim and they were formed a clear image about the cultural interaction made by the dialogue among the nations through many eras and how it has
participated clearly in determining the architectural identity features according to the environment's considerations for each region or area.
Key Words: Architectural Identity, Architectural Environment, Cultural Interaction.


Mohannad Abid Shehab Ahmed

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, 2012, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 13-24

ABSTRACT:- Programming robots is a useful tedious task, so there is growing
interest in building robots which can learn by themselves. This paper describes the
Reinforcement Learning and teaching approach like Queue Learning (Q-Learning) to be
implemented for robotics technology environment navigation and exploration. Q – Learning
algorithm is one of the widely used online learning methods in robotics; it is simple, efficient,
and not need to complex process as in adaptive system. The aim of this work is to empower
the agent to learn a certain goal directed navigation strategy and to generate a shortest path in
static environment which contain static obstacles; it uses one of the important intelligent
search methods the “heuristic”. It makes a necessary modification for the search algorithm to
suit the way of solving the problem. In our approach of learning from demonstration, the
robot learns a reward function from the demonstration and a task model from repeated
attempts (trials) to perform the task. A simplified reinforcement learning algorithm based on
one-step Q-Learning that is optimized in speed and memory consumption is proposed and
implemented in Visual Basic language (VB). The robot can be built using stepper motors and
any available microcontroller like 89c52 with its driver circuit to utilize of their matching.
Keywords: Reinforcement Learning, Q-Learning, Navigation, Robot,


Zena Waleed Abass

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, 2012, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 25-39

ABSTRACT:- The effect of steel fiber on the deflection of self- compacted slabs under
fire (6000c) was investigated in this study. Three specimens were tested experimentally and
numerically ( by using sophisticated finite element programme ANSYS 7.0) to determine the
deflection of these specimens under two point load after burned under (6000c) in a tested
furnace for four hours. Numerical study by using ANSYS programme is performed to
calculate the critical temperature and the temperature through the slabs with steel fiber
content of (0%,0.2%, and 0.5%). Another six model slabs with steel fiber content of (0.5%)
were studied numerically by using ANSYS 7.0 to investigate the effect of arrange of
parameters on the fire performance of self- compacted steel fiber reinforced concrete slabs.
The main factors that influence the fire resistance of self- compacted steel fiber reinforced
concrete slabs are: slab thickness, concrete cover thickness , moisture content.
The experimental results showed that the deflection of burned slab with steel fiber of (0.2%)
decreased to 30% than the deflection of burned slab without steel fiber under the same failure
load. While the deflection of burned slab with steel fiber of (0.5%) decreased to 50% than the
deflection of burned slab without steel fiber under the same failure load. On the other hand ,
the deflection results were checked with finite elements method by using sophisticated finite
element programme (ANSYS 7.0) and it was found that the results were acceptable and the
difference was not more than 9%. The results from thermal analysis showed that the
temperature decrease with the increase in the concrete depth of the self compacted steel fiber
reinforced concrete slabs, while the critical temperature for the slabs with steel fiber of
(0%,0.2%,0.5%) were (2500c, 3500c, 5800c) respectively.
Parametric study results showed that the slab thickness dose not have significant effect on
the fire resistance of the self compacted steel fiber reinforced concrete slabs, while concrete
cover thickness has a significant effect on the fire resistance of the self compacted steel fiber
reinforced concrete slabs. Fire resistance increases with an increase in the moisture content of
the concrete in the slabs.
Keywords: Steel fiber, ANSYS 7.0, Concrete, Fire resistance.

Planning of Construction projects

Mohammed M.Salman

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, 2012, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 33-51

ABSTRACT:- The engineering nature of Construction project imposed managers to lay down proper planning to control activities and tasks throughout the project, so the planning in considered as a basic subject for construction companies to control time, cost and quality.
The aim of this research to survey the reality of planning systems adopted by constriction companies and describe steps following to prepare programs for construction project.
The theoretical part of the research explain the various concepts of planning and its importance, Targets and control methods in construction projects while the practical part covers the field work survey a questionnaire list Containing three major axes prepared to
cover the main constriction planning requirements. The statistical analyses of the questionnaire's result emphasized that the upper management levels pages no considerable attention for the quality of construction planning as an integrated system for construction
Many conclusions and recommendations have been deduced which show the planning importance of constriction projects.


Fayroz A. Sabah; Sanaa N. Mohammed

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, 2012, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 40-51

ABSTRACT:- The welding of thermoplastics using CO2 laser achieved, two different types of thermoplastic materials used which are; Perspex (PMMA) which is the abbreviation of polymethyl methacrylate and (HDPE) which is the abbreviation of high density polyethylene. Similar or different materials can be welded together by laser beam but in this
work similar polymers have been welded (i.e PMMA tube to PMMA tube and HDPE plate to HDPE plate). Mechanical properties for these materials measured after welding, two CW CO2 lasers were used in the welding process have the wavelength of 10.6μm. The maximum power of the 1st one is 16W, and for the 2nd one is 25W. The experimental result showed that
the penetration depth increases with increasing laser output when the welding speed is constant. Also a relation between spot width and depth calculated using MATLAB software program version 6.5 taken into account the effect of the following parameters, power used in welding, melting temperature of the materials, welding speed and the spot diameter of the
laser beam.
Keywords: CO2, HDPE, PMMA, MATLAB software, power, welding.


Mohammed Kdair Abd

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, 2012, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 52-64

ABSTRACT:- In this paper application of Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) based algorithm for Optimal Power Flow (OPF) in Economic Dispatch (ED) was studied. Firstly, this method is dynamic in nature and it beats the arrears of other evolutionary computation techniques such as premature convergence and provides high quality solutions. Secondly, the
aim objective is to minimize the fuel cost generation of Iraqi Super Grid (ISG400Kv, 24-bus) by using PSO. Third, the proposed algorithm had been tested based on two system; first tested theoretically (IEEE, 26-bus) and the second was tested practically the Iraqi Super Grid
(ISG400Kv, 24-bus) with new data at October, 2010. Finally, the simulated results shows three major benefits of the proposed method on the systems studied as; Cost-minimization generation; Decreasing the energy loss and Enhancement of the voltage profile. Keywords: Economic dispatch, Iraqi Super Grid 400kv, Particle Swarm Optimization,
Optimal Power Flow.


Kais I. Abdul-lateef

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, 2012, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 65-78

ABSTRACT:- Solar energy is rapidly gaining importance as an energy resource. To make solar energy more viable, efficiency of solar panel systems must be maximized. A feasible approach to maximize the efficiency of solar panel systems is sun tracking. A solar panel
receives the most sunlight when it is perpendicular to the sun’s rays. This paper is about moving a solar panel along with the direction of sunlight; it uses a geared motor to change the position of the solar panel, the motor is controlled by the PIC16F84A microcontroller, which
detects the sunlight using photocells. The objective is to design and implement an automated, one-axis solar-tracking mechanism using embedded system design with minimum cost and reliable structure .
KEYWORDS: PIC microcontroller, photocell, one-axis tracking, solar energy, dc drives.


Haithem Abd Al-RaheemTaha

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, 2012, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 79-87

ABSTRACT:- On-line Arabic handwritten character recognition is one of the most challenging problems in pattern recognition field. By now, printed Arabic character recognition and on-line Arabic handwritten recognition has been gradually practical, while offline Arabic handwritten character recognition is still considered as "The hardest problem to conquer" in this field due to its own complexity. Recently, it becomes a hot topic with the release of database, which is the first text-level database and is concerned about the area of realistic Arabic handwritten character recognition. At the realistic Arabic handwritten text recognition and explore two aspects of the problem. Firstly, a system based on segmentation-recognition integrated framework was
developed for Arabic handwriting recognition. Secondly, the parameters of embedded classifier initialed at character-level training were discriminatively re-trained at string level. The segmentation-recognition integrated framework runs as follows: the written character is first over-segmented into primitive segments, and then the consecutive segments are combined into candidate patterns. The embedded classifier is used to classify all the candidate patterns in segmentation lattice. According to Genetic Algorithm (Crossover, mutation, and population), the system outputs the optimal path in segmentation-recognition lattice, which is the final recognition result. The embedded classifier is first trained at character level on isolated character and then the parameters are updated at string level on string samples.
Keywords: Arabic Character, handwritten recognition, Genetic Algorithm.


Muhanad Dheyaa Hashim; Ali Fahad Fahem; Issam Haider Jassim

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, 2012, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 88-102

ABSTRACT:- This paper study the conversion of the mechannical control system ton electrical control system for the softdrink machine which use gears as timers in the process of counting the number of the bottles and in the process of controlling the level of the softdrink in the bottle. The electricl control system use electronical components such as integrate circuits (counters , timers , LCD display ) , using the counter to count the number of the bottles with the use of the photosensor ( in our paper counting every four bottles )and adjusting the level of the fluid by one of the following methods. The first method of controling the level of the liquid is by the timer which is fixed at time which is required to fill the bottle to the adequate level and it is adjustable according to the volume of the bottle. The Second method for conteroling the level of the liquid is the ultrasonic device which use the ultrasonic sensor to control the level of the fluid and it is adjustable according to the distance between the sensor and the bottle. The results of the electrical and mechanical models achived the satisfication results .
Keyword : US Tx – ultrasonic transmiter, US Rx – ultrasonic reciever, SONAR – sound navigation and ranging, Radar – radio detection and ranging, LCD –liquid crystal display, PLC – Programmable Logic Controller.


Sami Ali Nawi ALazzawi

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, 2012, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 103-116

ABSTRACT:- In this study a numerical procedure was proposed for the design a die bending to study the effect of springback which influences the bending process and its relationship with other parameters such as friction coefficient, bending load, die geometry, sheet thickness, Young modules, and stress level. Using available finite element program
code( ANSYS .11) 3- Dimension ax symmetric model of semi conical shells was used to solve problems with material and geometric nonlinearities including large elastic- plastic strains and obeying bilinear isotropic hardening law. The result compared with analytical solution and showed that the best bending variables for producing completely product without failure are found as initial bending force = 12 KN, coefficient of friction = 0.1, the cone angle = 30 deg. So the springback increases inversely with young modulus and is normally compensated for by over bending the part also can bend at elevated temps to minimize springback A high value of stress and strain appears to be a good indicator to assess whether forming operation will be successful or not. The theories results were compared with Numerical solution and showed that a good agreement was compared with old research
KEYWORDS: Springback .Die bending . Bending Process of Shells.

Nonlinear Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Beams Strengthened with Prestressed CFRP sheets Under Cyclic Load

Jinan L. Abbas

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, 2012, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 117-137

ABSTRACT:- Analysis of reinforced concrete beams strengthened by prestressed CFRP sheets has been investigated in this paper. A three dimensional finite element analysis ANSYS computer program (version 9.0) was conducted to obtain the response of the strengthened beams. The eight –node brick elements(solid 65) are used for the idealization of concrete while the CFRP sheets are idealized by using three-dimensional layered elements (solid 46).The steel plates are idealized by using three dimensional solid elements (solid 45).Five beams are analyzed in study ,four with prestressed –CFRP sheets and one with nonprestressed- CFRP sheet. The effect of different level of prestress ,induced by prestressing the CFRP –sheets, on the cracking loads and flexural stiffness of the strengthened beams are studied. It is found that the cracking load and the flexural stiffness are significantly increased as the level of prestress increased. The response of the strengthened beam under cyclic loads is also conducted in terms of deflection versus number of cycles which is related to the cyclic
behaviour of the constituent materials used in the beam ( concrete , tension steel, and CFRP sheets).
The deformation of each these materials under cyclic loadings is presented in terms of measured strains as a percent of the number of cycles of fatigue. The results obtained from finite element analysis are compared with available experimental results and the comparison gives good accuracy.
Keywords: Prestress ,CFRP, strengthened, cracking loads, flexural stiffness ,cyclic loads.
The strengthening of reinforced concrete beam by means of externally bonded fiberreinforced
plastic (FRP) sheets has gained great attention in recent years because the
strengthening technique by using(FRP) sheets presents several practical advantages due to an
easy installation on site, great geometrical flexibility, high strength-to-weight ratio, good
durability, fatigue resistance and low creep (Hollaway and Leeming 1999) [1]. Although
bonding a FRP sheet to a beam can increase its ultimate strength, the sheet does not
significantly change the cracking load or the behaviour of the beam under service load.
However, by prestressing the sheet, the laminate is used more efficiently since it contributes
to the load – bearing capacity under both service and ultimate conditions. Several studies
were made to investigate the behaviour of the strengthening beam by externally bonded FRP
with or without prestressing. Triantafillou and Deskovic (1991) [2 ]reported an analysis of the
problem of providing the maximum achievable prestress level without experiencing a debonding
failure in the end zone. Triantafillou et al. (1992) [3 ] verified their analytical model
by performing


Amir.F. Dawood AL-Niaimi; Abdal Hak.K. Hussien; Mohammed.H. Msaed

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, 2012, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 138-146

ABSTRACT:- Some physical and chemical properties of drinking and raw water for Baladruze city in Diyala Governorate they were studied. Where the samples are collected as one sample monthly from new water clarifying station as a source for drinking water and from surface of Baladruze river, one major branches for Diyala river, starting from April to December 2010. The results were shown the acidity ( pH ) for two kinds of water at the weak base because to present the composites bicarbonates of calcium, magnesium and sodium premium another hydroxides. The water samples studied were containing total dissolved salts concentrations within the concentrations allowance ( < 1500 mg/l ) of two types water for most months in year and the total dissolved salts concentrations in drinking water less than raw water. The total hardness of water were within the acceptable ranges ( < 500 mg/l ) and
the total hardness in drinking water less than raw water. The studied were shown the concentrations of calcium and magnesium are within allowable concentrations while the concentrations of calcium more than magnesium and concentrations for the both in drinking water less than raw water. The studied were shown the two kinds of water were containing to bounty concentrations from dissolved oxygen, and the water turbidity was conformable for each months studied within allowance ranges of quality water for drinking water and non conformable for raw water.
Keywords: Physical, chemical, range, calcium, magnesium.



DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, 2012, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 147-159

ABSTRACT:- In this work composite material composed of high density polyethylene and inorganic pigment (carbon black and titanium dioxide) was prepared. Different amounts of carbon black and titanium dioxide (2– 15) wt% were added as filler. The preparation of filled and unfilled (High density polyethylene /Carbon black and titanium dioxide) composite was carried out using a single – screw extruder operated at a temperature of (170 – 190)oC.The incorporation was performed in a single screw extruder and sheets specimens were obtained by hot compression from extruded materials. Many mechanical and physical tests were used to determine the properties of the prepared composite material which involved compression strength, impact strength and modulus of elasticity for all the preparation composite. An untreated HDPE sheet is used for the purpose of comparison. In this study, the influence of addition of Carbon black and titanium dioxide, on the mechanical ,electrical and thermal a properties test of high-density polyethylene (HDPE). The results show that the use of pigments, carbon black and TiO2 in appropriate concentration ratios give a reliable improvement in the mechanical properties. The weight fraction of the carbon blacks and titanium dioxide ranged from 0.0 up to 15 wt % with the high density polyethylene. By discharging a high voltage through the composite it was found that the resistivity of the composite decreased. Carbon black and titanium dioxide –highdensity polyethylene composites show significant differences from the neat high-density
polyethylene measured in the frequency range. It was found that the carbon black and titanium dioxide/ high-density polyethylene
composites have better thermal properties than the neat high-density polyethylene.
Keyword: high density polyethylene. Titanium dioxide, Carbon black, Electrical properties, Thermal conductivity, Mechanical properties


Saad Khalaf Mohaisen

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, 2012, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 160-171

ABSRACT:- This paper presents an experimental investigation that reveals bond force - slip relationships for epoxy-coated reinforcing bars under elevated temperature conditions. The obtained experimental results indicated that coating reinforcing bars with epoxy tends to degrade the residual bond strength at elevated temperatures.
Keyword: bond, epoxy, bond-slip, slip, high temperature.


Aseel Mohammed Ali Hussein

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, 2012, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 172-180

ABSTRACT: Orthodontic tooth movement is a physiologic response to externally applied forces; the motive forces are primarily mechanical. The optimal application of orthodontic force enables maximum movement of teeth with minimal irreversible damage of the periodontal ligament (PDL), alveolar bone, and teeth. Since arch wires are the main force
system in orthodontics, it is important in clinical practice that they deliver appropriate, predictable and repeatable forces during treatment. These specialized wires even promise shape memory properties and the possibility of super elastic behavior, which significantly
impacts clinical practices. Since, standard stainless steel and titanium arch wires are still the materials of choice in many stages of treatment. They provide an attractive combination of stiffness, resilience and formability. However, clinical practitioners have commented on the variability of arch wire behavior for years. Inconsistent arch wire properties can contribute to unpredictable treatment duration and results.
This paper examines the mechanical and physical characteristics of stainless steel and titanium wires to quantify their variability in engineering terms. From the results for both types of wires, the testing method provides the information required by designers wishing to
improve the arch wire properties and provide valuable information to clinicians for their practice.
Keywords: orthodontics, mechanical properties, tensile properties, orthodontic wires,titanium, stainless steel.


Jasim Hassan Rasheed

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, 2012, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 181-190

ABSTRACT: Practical work on laser – Steel cutting Process for thin sheet to gain better informations on cut quality .
Relationship between cutting speed and roughness of the surface at different pressures is shown . It was found that the smoothness of the cut Process is proportional with the cutting speed without any apparent limitation . Roughest is also Proportional with Pressure of the oxygen gas which is used with CO2 laser beam.
Keywords: "Roughness , Steel , Cutting , Laser".


Mohammed Ali I. Al-Hashim; Nassrin J. Al-Mansori

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, 2012, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 191-204

ABSTRACT: In this research, the reality of the potabale water services in AL-Diwaniya City was studied, it in two essential lines:
First, the analysis of water distribution in the city trunk network, by using the program (pipe++) version 1998 to get the quantities and the directions of discharges water. Also it uses head pressure in some related network nodes. Measurements were made, infield, from each
region to estimate head in each trunk in order to specify the regions that suffer from shortage in water.
Second, the work to evaluates the suitability of raw and supply water. Samples of potable water were taken from the plant taps and from taps in each region on July 2003. Water born diseases in drinking water were specified during 2002 Statistical analysis was applied to the available data, including the AN OVA test, correlation test, and the results were as follows: - Raw water and drinking water considered as suitable for human use according to the Iraq and International drinking water standards. Although exceeding the acceptable border for each of (turbidity, hardness, sulphate, Calcium) but all of them are below allowable limit.
• Good significant relation between the percentage of polluted tap water and typhoid during the year of study.
• Residual chlorine for each regions (2.5-0.75) mg/L.
Keywords: Analysis, water, network.


Mohammed Faiq Mohammed; Muwafaq Mahdi Abd

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, 2012, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 205-220

ABSTRACT: This paper presents the evaluation of Poly(Methyl Methacrylate) or PMMA additive used in Iraqi lubricating oils to improve the characteristics of gasoline engine lubricants. Primarily, the viscosity with viscosity index improvement, represent the indicators
for the evaluation of this type of additives under the influence of engine temperature. The lubricants used in this work, after manual addition of PMMA, were prepared by mixing the Iraqi base oils of grades 150H & 60H (equal amounts of each type) with percentages 100%, 90%, 80%, and 75%, respectively. These prepared mixtures of lubricating
oils – additives were operated 4 hrs in engine of type "air cooled, 4-stroke, single cylinder, gasoline engine 3kw". The tests, were conducted for lubricant temperature during engine running, oil viscosity, viscosity index, and weight of debris (not analytic), on each sample of prepared lubricants.
The results confirmed that the most suitable lubricating oil for gasoline engine; either in summer or winter; was the mixture of 25% PMMA with 75% mixed base oil, with difference percentage not exceeds more than 6% between these two seasons, since it has lower increment of viscosity and lower VI decrease, with the presence of low amount of the
debris (weight percent). This debris can indicate damages to the engine components, for long time engine operation. Finally, the benefits involved that the PMMA was low affected with the increase of engine temperature, according to its bounded properties.
Keywords: PMMA, Poly(Methyl Methacrylate), gasoline engine, engine temperature, oil mixtures-additives, lubricants consumption.


Abidaoun H. shallal

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, 2012, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 221-230

ABSTRACT: Speed control of Dc motors is an important issue also shorter
settling time is desired . In this work at first a parallel PID compensator which adjusted by Ziegler – Nichols is designed but Ziegler – Nichols don't apply directly for all structures of PID controllr ,drive equations to applied Ziegler - Nichols for this configuration of PID compensator . The controller design process requirements are discussed by programming . Then the comparison between the PID configurations shows that the PID controller significantly reduced the overshoot , settling time and has the best performance encountering with system uncertainties . According to the matlab programming version 7.10 results , the D*PI controller has better performance than the PID configuration .
Keywords : PID .structure .