ISSN: 1999-8716

Keywords : Collapsible soil


Safa Hussain Abid Awn; Waad Abdulsattar Zakaria

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, 2014, Volume 7, Issue 3, Pages 1-24

Retaining walls may be required in a location where gypsum may present in soil in large percentages .The behavior of retaining walls on ordinary soils is well known but the behavior of retaining walls resting on gypseons soils may be not well understood as the case of ordinary soils.
In this study it is intended to reflect the behavior of gravity retaining wall resting on collapsible soil. And to do so a small prototype model (600mm*500mm*200mm) is used with soil mixed in presumed percentages with different gypsum percentages (5%, 20%, 30%, 50%). In addition to a model with 30% gypsum and treated with 2.7% Cement dust mixed with soil founded retaining wall structure. After preparing the foundation gypseous soil, a small glass made retaining wall filled with sand, which represent gravity wall, is put over such bed and backfilled with ordinary sandy soil. Dial gauges are placed to side and top of wall to measure the rotation settlement behavior and collapse of system. 4kPa stress are applied to backfill soil as to accelerate collapse with leaching process commenced. Data are recorded and analyzed completely, which shows the behavior of such structures embedded with different gypsum content.
The improvement in rotation settlement and collapse for the retaining wall model reaches more than 89%, was gained after treating the embedded gypseous soil layer, with 2.7% cement dust.


Waad Abdulsattar Zakaria

DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES, 2013, Volume 6, Issue 4, Pages 1-14

There are a lot of studies conducted on gypseous soils dealing with the effect of collapsibility on the general behavior of the soil concerning its strength properties, settlement indexes, volume-mass relationship and permeability. To get rid of the bad soil properties then one goes into another subject as dealing with the aspects of soil improvement or replacement and the like. This study is devoted to settlement investigation of a small prototype pile erected into gypsifereous soil, loaded to 70% of its ultimate bearing load, socked for two hours and then leached with water for seven days. In preparing testing soil, well graded sand is mixed with pure gypsum in ratios of gypsum content of 10, 20, 30, 50, 70%. The loading frame is locally manufactured as to apply loads and to record settlement of pile. The results revealed that when gypsum is less than 10% or 20%, settlement recorded is small. The settlement-time curves show a convetional “S” shape in a semi-log scale. Maximum settlement obtained is for gypsum content of 70% and is about 30% of pile diameter. Finally, three additional socking and leaching tests are also conducted by using 5% concentration of CH3COOH (acid), grade-60 viscosity oil, and kerosene for specimens containing 50% of gypsum. Specimen socked and leached by oil shows very little settlement, while the specimen treated with kerosene shows less settlement as compared with water. The
specimen treated with 5% concentration of CH3COOH shows 50% increase in settlement.